Gamma Cephei has a long history in the planet-hunting community. In 1988, Campbell, Walker and Yang published radial velocity measurements which show that Gamma Cephei harbors a dim stellar-mass companion with a period of decades. More provocatively, they also noted that the star’s radial velocity curve shows a periodicity consistent with the presence of a Jupiter-mass object in a ~2.5 year orbit around the primary star. In a 1992 paper, however, they adopted a cautious interpretation of their dataset, and argued that the observed variations were likely due to line-profile distortions caused by spots on the stellar surface. From their abstract:
In 1988 Gamma Cep was reported as a single-line, long-period spectroscopic binary with short-term periodic (P = 2.7 yr) residuals which might be caused by a Jupiter-mass companion. Eleven years of data now give a 2.52 yr (K = 27 m/s) period and an indeterminate spectroscopic binary period of not less than 30 yr. While binary motion induced by a Jupiter-mass companion could still explain the periodic residuals, Gamma Cep is almost certainly a velocity variable yellow giant because both the spetrum and (R – I) color indices are typical of luminosity class III. T eff and the trigonometric parallax give 5.8 solar radii independently.
In October 1995, 51 Peg b was announced, and exoplanet research was off to the races. The Walker team, with their futuristic RV surveys had seemingly come close to success, but had not managed to snag the cigar.
In the Fall of 2002, however, the planetary interpretation for the Gamma Cephei radial velocity variations was revived by Hatzes et al., who used McDonald Observatory to extend the data set. They showed that the 2.5 year signal has stayed coherent over two decades, thus effectively ruling out starspots or other stellar activity as the culprit. The planet clearly exists.
Aside from providing a pyrrhic victory for the Walker team, the Gamma Cephei planet is a remarkable discovery in its own right. Its presence showed that gas giants can form in relatively long-period orbits around binary stars of moderate period. In their discovery paper, Hatzes et al. assumed that the binary companion orbits with a period of 57 years, but other estimates varied widely. Walker et al. (1992), for example, adopted 29.9 years, whereas Griffin (2002) use 66 years. The mystery is strengthened by the fact that to date, the companion star has never been seen directly.
The details of the orbit of the binary star are of considerable interest. For configurations where the periastron approach is relatively close, simulations show that the star-planet-star configuration can easily be dynamically unstable.
In his new article, Torres methodically collects all of the available information on the star, and shows that the binary companion to Gamma Cephei has a 66.8 +/- 1.4 year period, an eccentricity of e=0.4085 +/- 0.0065, and a mass of 0.362 +/- 0.022 solar masses. The orbital separation thus lies at the high end of the previous estimates, and renders the stability situation for the system considerably less problematic.
We’re stoked about the Torres paper because it provides references to some truly ancient radial velocities, dating all the way back to a compendium published by Frost and Adams in 1903:
who report 3 measurements made at the University of Chicago’s Yerkes Observatory:
Eugenio has tracked down the various references in the Torres paper, and has recently added all of the available old-school RV’s for Gamma Cephei to the downloadable console. You can access the full dataset by clicking on “GammaCephei_old”:
It’s straightforward to manually adjust the offset sliders to put the radial velocities on a rough baseline. You can then build a rough binary star fit with the sliders, followed by repeated clicking on the Levenberg-Marquardt polish button, with the five orbital elements and the five velocity offsets as free parameters. This gives an Msin(i)=386 Jupiter masses, a period of 24,420 days, and an eccentricity, e=0.4112. Try it! The values that you’ll derive are in excellent agreement with the Torres solution:
With the binary fitted out, try zooming in on the more recent data from the past 10-20 years. You’ll see that the modulation of the radial velocity curve arising from the planet is faintly visible even to the eye. It’s interesting to go in and find the best-fit planetary model…